Implant is artificial tooth root, titanium screws placed in the bone and made with teeth (crowns) in the treatment of tooth deficiency.

Any dental treatment with implant support is called implant supported dental treatment. Implant and implant supported prosthesis restorations are applied in the absence of all teeth or partial tooth deficiency or single tooth deficiency by making appropriate plans.

In the region where implant placement is required, the jaw bone must have height and width that will accept these implant screws. The structure of the existing bone is one of the factors affecting the success of the implant. In addition, gums must be healthy for implant placement. As long as the patient’s overall health is well, there is no upper age limit to prevent the implant application, but it is not be preferable to be applied to very young patients whose bone development has not been completed, especially under 20 years old. In some cases, patients with systemic disease or using drugs containing bisphosphonates in the past may need the approval of their doctor.

By implant applications, adjacent teeth are protected from any damage. Chewing, speech, and taste problems that may arise in full dentures are not experienced in implant applications. In this respect, the quality of life provided by the treatment is very high in comfort. The patient with implant eat easily because of ending of chewing problem. So patient  can get easily more healthy and balanced nutrition. Since implant is in the shape of  natural tooth, the patient feels good aesthetically and self-confident.

Implant treatment is a treatment that restores aesthetic and functional losses associated with tooth loss. It is a surgical treatment, but its results provide aesthetic gains. Implant placement is one way of smile design treatment too..

Implants are long-lasting treatments. Implants are designed at least for 10 years. And also it is possible to carry them during life. Good planning and implementation of implant treatment, regular dental care, regular dentist checkups after implant treatment will prolong the implant life. Good planning of implant treatment is related to using quality implants, determining bone adequacy and adding bone if necessary, and performing implant procedure by experienced dentists.

The healing cap is a spacer applied to shape the gum around the implant after it is healed into the bone. After screwing into the implant, the gum is expected to take shape.

The stages of the implant treatment is planning, hygiene and preparation of mouth, grafting of the appropriate places, implant placement and lastly the placement of dental restorations. Sometimes, some or all of these steps can be done in one session when conditions are appropriate.

Implant placement is done under local anaesthesia. Pain is not felt during the procedure. After the surgery, because of decreasing effect of anaesthesia, pain can occur a little and be removed with simple painkillers.

No permanent prosthesis should be placed on the implant. Only a temporary prosthesis is done at the end of surgery. It is needed to wait nearly 3 months for permanent restoration on the implant.

Implant hygiene is more sensitive than natural tooth. Doctor’s directions about hygiene should be strictly followed. Dental checking should be done regularly every six months.

Implant treatment is the most preferred treatment with its aesthetic appearance, restoring chewing and speech functions, and being close to natural teeth and long-lasting. However, from time to time, there may be complaints such as infection, difficulty in hygiene and failure of the restorations to meet the aesthetic expectations compared to the natural tooth. In the restorations, the breaks are more than the natural teeth. Since the natural teeth are spreading in the bone, the force on the coating is stretched. Since the implant does not have this feature, the pressure on the coating becomes more and this may cause breakage in the restorations on the implant.

After the implant surgery, the pain is not expected. Painkiller can be taken on the first day, just after the anesthetic effect has passed. Painkiller can be used on the first day. The dentist should be consulted if the pain continue in the following days.

Since implant treatment has been made to restore lost chewing ability there is no specific post-implant dietary program.

In case of inflammation of the implant, the inflamed area should be kept clean with an interface brush, gargle with salt water and consult the dentist as soon as possible.

Post-implant pain and swelling are not expected after surgery. There may be a little swelling when supportive surgical procedures such as sinus lifting are performed, which goes away by itself.

Post-implant ice treatment is applied only on the day of treatment. The aim is to stop bleeding, prevent pain and swelling.

On the day of implant treatment, you should gargle with salt water once before going to bed at night and twice a day for the following 3 days.

There is no need to remove the stitch since often the melted stitch is used. If non-melted stitching is performed, stitches are removed one week after the procedure.

If the implant sutures are opened, there is a risk of complications, damaging healing process. The dentist should be visited as soon as possible. 

Smoking should not be allowed for one week after implant procedure, because of its negative effect on the healing of the wound.

Alcohol can be used after implants. However; If the antibiotic, used in the post-implant procedure, cannot be taken together with alcohol, alcohol should be avoided.

Cleaning the implant is done like cleaning natural teeth. Cleaning is necessary to prolong the life of the implant. A proxy brush may be required to effectively clean the implant. Proxy brushes are of different sizes. Your dentist helps you determine the right size proxy brush for yourself. For long-lasting implants, regular dentist examination every six months is very important..

Before the implant placement, the general health condition, bone structure and intraoral state of the patient are evaluated clinically and radiologically, and their suitability for treatment is decided. 90-95% success is achieved in implant treatments placed in the bone suitability and adequacy with the right surgical techniques and quality products.

Failed implant is understood from shaking, pain and infection of the implant. In some cases, the patient can not notice that the implant has failed, it is only noticed during the dentist examination.

When the implant becomes loose, the dentist should be visited without delay. Visiting dentist on time can save the dangling implant. If the implant fails, the dentist should be visited with the failed implant. When the implant fails, implant treatment should be planned from the beginning.

Implant is a product that uses precious metals such as titanium and high technologies and should be supported by continuous R&D studies. Therefore, manufacturer companies allocate high budgets for R&D and design projects. Implant brands with different designs and features and different prices emerge as a result of high budget R&D studies of different manufacturers. But; due to the continuous entering of new manufacturers and competitors in the sector, there are suitable implant brands for almost every budget. In this respect, it can be compared to automotive, mobile phone, computer technologies and product variety. In order to avoid fake, imitation or poor quality implants, the dentist should be consulted and treatment should be planned together. The implant is a surgical procedure. It requires expertise, experience and skill. Implant surgery may need to be supported with surgical procedures such as graft and sinus lifting frequently. Therefore expertise, experience and skill of the surgent affect the quality and price of the implant.

Which implant brand to use is a sensitive issue. Implants are products made of precious metals and their designs are based on important R&D studies. There are many different brands of implants used in dentistry. Dentists prefer to work with one or a few implant brand. Since dentists have the enough knowledge and enough experience to determine the right and qualified brand to apply, you should trust your dentist about the implant and search patients’ comments for feedback on implant brands.

There are many implant brands in the world. It is an important technological product that every country is interested in commercially. Straumann, Nobel, Camlog, Zimmer, Bredent are some of the globally recognized brands.

Implant is applied in many countries of the world, especially in European countries and America, and in all developed countries and large-scale R&D investments are made in this field.

In dental treatments, the implant has been used successfully in the world since 1965. R&D investments in this area are quite high. The implant has no known harm.

Implants are designs made of precious metals using high technology. So far, no case has been recorded to support the relationship between implant and cancer.

Smile design is recommended for patients with smile aesthetics problems due to reasons some reasons such as lip symmetry disorders, coloring, tooth loss, diestama, symmetry and alignment problems requiring orthodontic treatment, upper anterior teeth structure or symmetry problems, lip line or gingival problems, old age and weakening of the muscles of the lips.

In laminated applications, only a very small amount of tooth is abraded without removing the entire enamel tissue. It is applied to the upper jaw teeth without any cuts and the treatment period is short. It is an alternative to full crown restorations. It is made with minimal cut or without cut, such as 0.3-.0.7 mm in the tooth, and since it is adhered with adhesive system, it preserves color stability and natural appearance for years.

Porcelain laminae are especially recommended for patients with enamel worn, stained, irregular shape, aesthetic problems of anterior teeth not aligned in the right place.

Zirconium bridge is advanced technology applications made of a white alloy without metal support. Zirconium bridge is more durable and aesthetic dental solution.

It is an alloy used as a substructure for porcelain coatings in dentistry. As such, it is an alternative to metal-backed porcelain coatings. It is quite aesthetic compared to metal supported porcelain coating and bridges. It does not cause gum problem, bad breath and allergic reaction. Strong and aesthetic restorations without metal can be successfully accomplished with zirconium oxide, which is a high technology product.

Metal porcelains cause black color on gum and metal color reflection from gum in time. For this reason, porcelain with a more aesthetic, more natural appearance, long lasting and no smudging on the gums are preferred. The harmony of the zirconia with the gums, its natural and aesthetic appearance is also very important for gingival health.

Severe tooth decay, gingival sickness, tooth fractures, inadequate root canal treatment, cyst, orthodontic disorders are among common reasons of tooth extraction.

Tooth extraction requires technical knowledge and skills more than muscle power. So it is not realistic to discriminate among gender of dentists.

If antibiotics or other medicines are recommended by your dentist, they should be taken as recommended. If you have a disease, allergies and regular drugs it should be shared with dentist before tooth extraction. Drugs like aspirin that delay clotting should not be used before extraction. If possible, teeth should be brushed nicely and rinsed with antiseptic water. Thus, it is good to decrease the bacteria in the mouth and reduce the risk of infection.

Depending on the structure of the bone tissue and the tooth root, the tooth during tooth extraction can be broken. No need to be worried in this condition because the dentist removes the broken tooth from the root with proper intervention.

Wisdom tooth is the last tooth in the mouth and is also known as the third largest molar. It usually occurs between the ages  17 and 25.


Mostly wisdom teeth are four. It is rarely seen at all, rarely more than 4. In some clinical cases, 8 wisdom teeth were observed in same person.

Over time, the jaw structure of mankind has became narrower. By increasing of consuming soft foods, the need to chew decreased. The small jaw and the lower need for chewing has minimized the importance of wisdom teeth. Wisdom teeth are more remarkable with the problems which they cause than their need for human chewing system.

Problems caused by the wisdom teeth depend on multiple factors such as the size of the jaw, the direction of the tooth and hygiene. The problems caused by the tooth are generally buried tooth, decay, cyst, pain, gum infection, cheek bite, tooth disfigurement.

Wisdom teeth are expected to take their normal place in about 1 year. If wisdom teeth don’t take their normal place during the expected period, the tooth may be partially or completely buried and called as impacted tooth.

Buried teeth are mostly extracted in case of gingival disease, decay of the buried tooth and damage to other teeth, increasing the risk of jaw breakage and creating a risk of cyst.

Since the impacted tooth will prevent the use of the prosthesis, if buried tooth is diagnosed with the help of radiographs, impacted tooth must be surgically removed before applying the prosthesis.

Considering the risk of bleeding, bloating and infection; the conditions must be checked for the first 24 hours. A tampon should be applied to the injured area for at least half an hour with a biting motion. Spitting and shaking should not be done since it will break down the formed clot. Hot nutrition and shower should be avoided. Do not chew on the injured side. Bleeding-enhancing drugs such as aspirin should not be used. The wound should not be tampered with. Edema should be controlled by applying cold buffer. Mouth cleaning should be done with soft movements.

There may be slight swelling, bleeding and pain after extraction. If the extraction is planned and applied well and if the patient follows the recommendations of the dentist after tooth extraction, these complaints will be reduced to almost none.

Bleaching is a whitening process. Tooth enamel can be damaged if bleaching is done with individual efforts. Dental aesthetics are ensured by paying attention to the health of all dental tissues in the clinic control or bleaching performed in the clinic. Sensitivity to heat and cold can be seen after bleaching. This is a temporary reaction.

After bleaching process, if oral and dental care is done regularly, bleaching retains its effect between 1 and 3 years. If it is ensured to repeat the whitening process once a year, the permanence of the whitening last more than expected.

Whitening is not recommended for children under the age of 18, whose dental development continues.

Teeth change color over time. The main causes of color change in the tooth are aging, smoking and tobacco use, tea, coffee consumption, consumption of colored and acidic foods, a group of antibiotics taken in the womb or early infancy, excessive fluoride intake, inadequate daily oral care, amalgam fillings and root canal treatment.

Whitening is applied to treat discoloration in the tooth. There are 2 different application methods of bleaching, office type and home type. In the home bleaching option, a special and personal bleaching tray is prepared for the patient, taking the patient’s mouth size. The whitening gel is put on the bleaching tray by the way, shown by dentist. The plate is placed in the mouth and kept for about 6-8 hours. This process, where the gel has a bleaching effect, is applied for 10-15 days. Depending on the staining of the tooth, the desired result can be obtained from the first week. During this time, colorful drinks and foods are avoided. The tray is often used at night.

Office type bleaching is a process that takes approximately 30-60 minutes with a special bleaching gel. Depending on the condition of the enamels, a second session may be required to complete the whitening process and give effective results. Results are obtained in a shorter time than home type whitening. It is easy and simple to apply. However, unlike home bleaching, cold hot sensitivity may be seen for a short time after the procedure.

Since bleaching is a process that can only be applied to natural teeth, porcelains cannot be bleached, so if there are prosthetic restorations especially in the anterior region, and if there will be a color difference between the restoration and teeth, the patient can be informed and if necessary, the restoration can be changed in the color of the newly obtained tooth.

In cases such as tooth root infection, high risk of cracking and fracture and tenderness due to an untreated caries or broken tooth, the dentist may not find the whitening treatment appropriate.

Prosthetic restorations are structures consisting of artificial teeth placed in the dental cavities by attaching the gaps formed in case of loss of one or more teeth to the crowns prepared on natural teeth by getting support from neighbouring teeth.

Bridges can consist of gold alloys, non-precious alloys, porcelain or a combination of all these materials.

Fixed partial dentures should be cleaned regularly by using a toothbrush, floss and interface brush. If daily cleaning of fixed partial prostheses is not done regularly and well it cause bad breath and gingival diseases over time.
After each meal, removable denture should be cleaned by using tooth brushes and soap. Its inner and outer sides of prosthesis must be clean with the flowing water to remove microorganisms on the surface. Tooth paste can cause loss of the polish on the external surface of the prosthesis. In addition, cleaning with cleaning agents produced for different purposes (bleach, dishwashing cream) should not be used because it will disrupt the prosthesis structure. The tablet or solution produced specifically for dentures cleaning can be used with caution in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. It is also important to clean the inside tissues of the mouth where the prosthesis is placed. After the prosthesis is removed and cleaned, the toothless areas in the mouth should be cleaned with a soft toothbrush or gauze. If you have a tooth in your mouth, it should be cleaned with a toothbrush and toothpaste. When the prosthesis is removed, it should be stored in a water-filled container. At least six months should be indicated by referring to a dentist. It is useful to renew the prosthesis every 2 to 5 years at least in order to ensure that the tissues change with years.

Gingival diseases can develop due to many reasons such as unbalanced nutrition, hygiene problems, genetic transfer, aging and microbial diseases. The most common gingival disease is periodontitis. Regular dentist control is very important in the prevention and treatment of gingival disease.

Gingival diseases, which are diagnosed by symptoms such as bad smell, bleeding, tenderness, shaking of the teeth, can cause loss of all teeth if not treated. When the gum gets sick, receding gum generally occurs, the periodontal pockets that provide an environment suitable for bacterial growth deepen and the bone resorption begins.

In early interventions, progression of the disease is prevented by deep cleansing (periodontal curettage). With the curettage process, dental scale and dental plaques in an around sick area are effectively cleaned and so the suitable environment for microbial ailments are removed, the granule  tissues are cleaned, the root surfaces are polished. Caries that threaten gum health are removed and bad fillings and old prostheses are replaced at this stage. To make the effect of curettage prolonged, wisdom teeth can be extracted. Curettage may take 3-4 sessions to obtain more effective results, depending on the dentist’s planning and the conditions about patient.

In the treatment of early gingival diseases, curettage can provide sufficient environment for the gum to be healthy. However, in advanced cases, surgical interventions such as gingivectomy and flap are needed for effective treatment. With the surgical procedure called gingivectomy, the depth of the periodontal pockets, which are suitable for bacterial growth, is reduced and enlarged gums are removed. Thus, environments suitable for the development of microbes are removed from the mouth.

In the flap operation planned for patients who accompany gum disease with bone resorption, the tissues under the gum are reached, diseased tissues, root surfaces are cleaned and deep periodontal pockets are intervened. Bone graft is applied in cases with bone loss.

For the protection of gum health, effective oral hygiene, regular dentist visit and non-smoking are recommended.

The amount of mercury in amalgam is quite low. There is no research to prove that mercury in amalgam is harmful.

Effective washing of the mouth and teeth at least 2 times in the morning after breakfast and before going to bed at night protects the oral and dental health.

One of the main topics of pediatric dentistry is to protect milk teeth. Milk teeth eruption generally start from the 4th month of infancy and remain in the mouth until permanent teeth are removed.

Milk teeth are important for the development of chewing habit, jaw bone muscles and speaking skills and they provide space for permanent teeth. The health and development of milk teeth is the main field of study for pediatric dentistry, as it will affect the development of permanent teeth. Milk teeth allow the child to eat properly and speak properly. Milk teeth protect the place they occupy for permanent teeth to be replaced and guide permanent teeth. When the milk tooth is pulled, the natural placeholding task also ends.

It is normal for the milk teeth to be intermittent, as these spaces provide space for permanent teeth to come.

Milk teeth are more prone to decay than permanent teeth due to differences in their structure. Their layers are very thin, dentin canals are wide and permeable. The layer called pulp is also very close to the surface. For this reason, milk teeth are very weak teeth. Caries that start on the milk teeth progress very quickly.

When the baby’s first teeth are erupted, teeth cleaning should be started by the parent. At least 2 times (after breakfast and before going to bed at night) tooth surfaces should be cleaned by moistening with gauze or with a soft clean fabric tissue.

After eruption of the back teeth of the child, it is suitable to use a brush for dental cleaning. Care should be taken with soft brush.

Caries in pediatric patients are treated by filling, canal treatment and amputation.

Decayed teeth carry a constant risk of infection. If it is untreated many dental health problems occurs like toothache, bad breath and tooth loss.

Milk teeth guide the permanent teeth by keeping room. If the milk tooth is pulled out early, there is no space for permanent teeth and shortness of space occurs.

To protect milk teeth against caries; oral cleaning should be done well, fluorine and fissure applications should be used and regular dentist visit should be done.

Untreated baby bottle tooth decay causes pain and inflammation. Inflamed or painful teeth cause stress of the baby and disrupt nutrition. Inflammation also affects permanent teeth coming from the bottom and causes their shape to be distorted. If these teeth have to be pulled out, the child may have speech problems.

As a result of various traumas such as falling, crashing, traffic accidents, sports injuries, some damage to teeth or soft tissues may occur. Swings, breaks, burial or dislocation of the tooth in the bone; soft tissue injuries may occur. In such cases, if the broken part or the whole of the tooth came out, the tooth should be found and stored in milk, or in water. As soon as possible the child and the broken tooth should be brought to the dentist.

Fissure Sealant is a caries protective treatment and no known harm has been recorded in the dental literature.

Fissure sealants are recommended for every kids as preventive treatment, as children are at risk of caries due to their underdeveloped daily dental cleaning and skills.

Fissure is a covering filler. It is long lasting but can be worn. In routine checkups, the dentist can replenish fissure-covering tissue abrasions.

Fissure sealant is the process of coating the surface of the tooth with a fluid filler. It is completed in a 10 minute session and the patient does not feel restless and pain.

Fissure sealants, which are among preventive medicine practices, are not expensive treatments that can push the parental budgets. It is an application that will prevent the costs of caries treatment.

The vast majority of studies in dentistry supports that fluoridation is a very safe intervention. Fluorine protects and strengthens tooth enamel against acid effects.

The teeth have a natural alignment on the jaw. Abnormality in jaw and tooth development is reflected in facial aesthetics and can be easily noticed.

The orthodontic treatment should be planned when the lower teeth are higher than the upper teeth, or when the upper teeth are lower than the lower teeth, when the lower and upper front teeth do not come into contact with each other during closure, when there is gap and perplexity between the teeth.

Habits such as long finger sucking, nail biting, pen biting affect the development of teeth and jaw negatively.

The orthodontical materials (metal and porcelain brackets) are not harmful to our health.

X-ray imaging could be recommended in some conditions like when the routine dentist checkup is insufficient to diagnose or there is risk for serious caries or some undiagnosed and ongoing problems such as pain or bleeding, when it is needed to plan orthodontic and surgical treatment or when more details are needed to evaluate a complicated situation about soft and hard tissue and nerves around jaws and all skull.

X-ray imaging of the teeth and jaw of children must be taken absolutely with the demand of a dentist and in health institutions that are licensed to use X-ray devices. If there is dentist’s request to be taken X-ray,it should be complete without hesitation. The amount of received radiation dose is low. In addition, other parts of the body are protected from radiation with the lead body cover.

It is recommended not to be exposed to X-Ray rays while pregnant. However, if radiography is needed crucially for the pregnant, a dental X-ray can be taken by using lead covers for the abdomen and thyroid to protect body from radiatio.

The radiation emission of X-ray imaging devices used in dentistry is low. Also, as the lead cover is worn during imaging, other areas of the body are also protected, so there should be no need to be worried for X-ray therapy. In addition, the dentist requests radiography by taking into account the patient’s condition and possible risks.

Radiographic imaging is requested for diagnosis and monitoring of the course of treatment. Therefore, the dentist determines how often X-rays will be exposed, taking into account the patient’s condition. When requesting radiographic imaging, the dentist takes into account the patient’s history, condition, such as being pregnant, and other criteria for radiation intake. In order to plan the treatment correctly, panoramic imaging may be requested before starting treatment in dental treatments such as canals or implants, and after treatment to evaluate the success of the treatment. The amount of radiation emitted from radiographic imaging devices used in dentistry is low.

In the modern dentistry, there are different imaging devices that differ depending on the area they are viewing or the viewing dimensions. For example, in periapical imaging, a detailed view of only one or a few teeth is obtained, while in panoramic imaging, detailed imaging of the entire jaw is obtained. In tomography, also known as three-dimensional imaging device, a detailed image of both the chin and the skull is obtained.

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